The trouble is it works with Vulkan for most people on Linux. It only seems to be problematic with certain cards/drivers. The issues with AMD cards with Vulkan on Linux were solved already (post 0.135). Given that it’s so hardware- and driver-specific, I very much doubt any Windows setup is going to provide equivalent results.
Might want to put a note about this issue on the MAME website for the Linux users. If there any more issues please put a note about those too. This way people won't be going around in a circle trying to get something to work. No I'm not mad.
So I just double checked if Vulkan could run on my system. I just produced this image using the vkcube utility (run through mangohud): https://imgur.com/a/MZ5jVBr So I can rule out that my system is incompatible with vulkan. Yet if I intentionally set the bgfx_backend to vulkan, the crash reproduces.
Just rebuilt to MAME 0.234 to test it out. Set video to bgfx and bgfx_backend to vulkan. MAME launches and runs (mangohud confirms vulkan in use) but then the video freezes after a few seconds. Emulation continues however. I can run pacman and insert coins and press start and I hear the coin sound and the start music. There are just no video updates. Double checked to confirm: no such issues with the opengl backend, the video continues normally.