Thanks for the information about Astrocade timing under MAME.
I created a hardware timing test using real Bally Arcade/Astrocade hardware. Two programs are run that use clocks which can be used for timing real Bally Arcade hardware versus emulation. One program, Goldfish Demo, is written in machine language. The other program, Grandfather Clock, is written in BASIC. This video can be used to test how the emulation speed is for Astrocade emulation. You can view the video here:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6QSTZ8v9Aa0
Each program is run for three minutes.
Bally Ellerson's "Grandfather Clock" running under BASIC:
1) Real Hardware - Bally BASIC: 1 Minutes = 1 minute in real time.
2) Real Hardware - AstroBASIC: 1 Minute = 38 seconds in real time.
Bit Fiddler's Goldfish Demo running on real hardware:
1) Real Hardware - Goldfish Demo: 1 Minutes = 1 minute in real time.
This video is broken into several parts, to make viewing it easier for those interested in only certain portions of this video.
0:00 - Overview of Time Testing Process
0:06 - Goldfish Demo (Cartridge), Running and Overview of Time Testing Process
3:29 - Grandfather Clock (Bally BASIC), Program Running for 3 Minutes
6:50 - Grandfather Clock ("AstroBASIC"), Program Running for 3 Minutes
9:02 - End Credits
I hope that this video allows comparing real hardware versus emulation easier for those that don't have astrocade hardware.